Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer develops when the cells in the prostate gland change, begin to divide uncontrollably and concentrate in a derivative called a tumor. The tumor can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body.

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor. Some prostate tumors grow very slowly, so a person does not feel any symptoms or signs for a long time. Many prostate cancer cells begin to produce too much of a protein called prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, excess PSA levels are found not only in prostate cancer but also in other prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) and prostatitis (inflammation or infection of the prostate).

Affected prostate tumor

Prostate cancer is significantly different from other cancers because it has almost no spread from the prostate. Often, even an advanced prostate tumor can be successfully treated and give men with the disease the opportunity to enjoy good health and life for several more years to come. If the cancer spreads (metastasizes) to other organs and the disease is not effectively controlled, it can cause pain, fatigue, or other symptoms.

Types of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer can be of different types. The type is determined by the cells and tissues from which the primary prostate tumor developed.

Prostate adenocarcinoma

More than 90 percent. all diagnosed prostate tumors consist of prostate adenocarcinoma. Thus, almost every man diagnosed with prostate cancer has prostate adenocarcinoma. The cancer begins to develop in the cells of the prostate glandular epithelium. Many prostate adenocarcinomas grow very slowly and are prone to spread. But there are some that grow pretty fast.

Symptoms of non-cancerous and cancerous prostate diseases

Benign prostatic hyperplasia. With age, the prostate gland in men often increases. This is usually not due to cancer. This disease is called benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatic hyperplasia.

Prostate cancer does not cause any symptoms at first. Many prostate tumors begin to form on the outside of the prostate gland, away from the urethra. As long as the tumor is small, it does not press on the duct (urethra) and does not prevent urine from leaving the body, so the person does not feel any change. When symptoms begin to appear, a later stage of prostate cancer is often diagnosed.

The symptoms of non-cancerous (benign) and cancerous (malignant) prostate tumors are very similar:

  • sudden urge to urinate;
  • more frequent than usual urge to urinate, especially at night;
  • difficulty urinating, urinary felt urge, effort required to start and finish the action;
  • feeling that you still fail to empty your bladder completely;
  • after finishing urinating after a few minutes, some urine may drip again and contaminate the underwear;
  • discomfort while sitting, cycling due to an enlarged prostate.
cause of prostatitis

Prostate cancer risk factors

Risk factors are any environmental factors, inherited traits, lifestyles or habits that increase the risk of cancer. Although risk factors influence the onset of cancer, many do not directly cause cancer.

What specifically causes prostate cancer is not yet well known, but some common risk factors have been identified that may increase the risk of developing this male disease.

  • Age. People over 50 are at higher risk for prostate cancer. About 80 percent. cases of prostate cancer are found in men over 65 years of age.
  • Family predisposition. Prostate cancer is thought to be caused by one or more altered or damaged cell genes. About 75 percent. cases of prostate cancer are sporadic. This means that genetic changes occur randomly after a person is born. About 20 percent. cases of prostate cancer are familial, i. y. cancer develops due to changes in genes that predominate in families and their interactions with environmental factors. About 5 percent. cases of prostate cancer are inherited. Hereditary prostate cancer develops due to genetic alterations. Altered genes are passed on to offspring. If a first-degree relative (father, brother or child) has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, the risk of prostate cancer increases 2-3 times for other men in this family.
  • Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. It is caused by mutations in the BRCA1 and / or BRCA2 genes. Although this syndrome is generally associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in women, mutations in these genes in men may also increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer. Mutations in the HPC1, HPC2, HPCX genes may also increase the risk, but at least one of them has not been shown to cause prostate cancer or to be a specific marker of prostate cancer.
  • Nutrition. Although there is no evidence that malnutrition or certain products can directly cause or prevent prostate cancer, many researchers see links between eating habits and the incidence of oncological diseases. Fatty foods, especially animal fats, are considered one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. To prevent prostate cancer, fatty foods should be abandoned and instead of animal fats, it is better to choose vegetables, eat more vegetables, fruits and legumes. Healthy eating should be the norm from a young age, but changing your eating habits in later years is only for the benefit.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Which treatment methods to apply to a man with prostate cancer are usually decided by a team of doctors: a surgeon (urologist), an oncologist, a radiotherapist, and an oncologist, a chemotherapist. The treatment plan is tailored to each patient, so it’s no surprise that your colleague or neighbor has been treated for prostate cancer in a completely different way than recommended to you. In order to select the most appropriate treatment, specialists take into account many factors:

  • the general state of health of the man;
  • age;
  • whether the patient has any other illnesses;
  • cancer stage and degree of differentiation;
  • whether there are distant metastases;
  • Serum PSA levels;
  • the likely side effects of the treatment;
  • what purpose of treatment is acceptable to the patient and what benefits he expects from the treatment.

The main methods of treating prostate cancer are hormone therapy, radiation therapy and surgical treatment, less commonly chemotherapy.

In addition to basic treatment to maintain a good quality of life, doctors often recommend adhering to the principles of a healthy lifestyle, moving more and using those phytopreparations that scientists have found to inhibit the progression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer.


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Prostate and Prostatitis

Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostate gland activity is associated with libido, orgasm, effective spermatogenesis, and ejaculation. Do you feel a very frequent urge to urinate? Do you experience bothersome pain while urinating? Then visit a medical urologist. During the consultation, the urologist will determine the causes of the illness, prescribe effective treatment, and you will be able to enjoy excellent health again. Do not wait for prostatitis to do significant damage to the prostate.

prostatitis symptoms

Prostate infection

Prostatitis can be cured quite effectively, but delaying contact with a specialist risks low potency, poor sperm quality, and even infertility all of this will harm the prostate. This disease can affect not only physical but also mental health, which is particularly impaired due to disrupted social life, constant discomfort, or deteriorating relationships with a life partner.
Want to enjoy a quality life? Then take care of your prostate gland health in a timely manner. Don’t expect prostatitis to go away on its own. On the contrary, it can turn into chronic inflammation, which will be much more difficult to cure than early-stage prostatitis.

what is the main cause of prostate enlargement

One major cause of prostatitis has not yet been identified. It is possible to consider that several factors can cause this disease in one person, such as:

  • Bacterial infection;
  • Autoimmune reaction;
  • Muscle strain or physical injury;
  • Prostate stones;
  • Food allergy;
  • Virus.

E.coli is one of the most commonly detected pathogens. The disease can also start to develop due to various microorganisms that often cause chronic prostatitis. A professional urologist will help determine why you develop prostatitis. This is very important because different causes of prostatitis require different treatments.
Also pay attention to the risk factors that cause prostatitis. These can include genital trauma, very frequent cycling, horseback riding, and even sexual abstinence.

cause of prostatitis

How to recognize prostatitis?

Prostatitis usually begins quite acutely and unexpectedly. This onset of the disease can make you anxious, but don’t worry if you notice the symptoms of prostatitis in time.

Symptoms of prostatitis

  • Pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Fever or chills;
  • Urinary retention;
  • Frequent and painful urination;
  • Cloudy urine;
  • Painful bowel movements;
  • Painful, enlarged prostate.

Prostatitis treatment

Urine-enhancing drugs, antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pelvic blood flow-reducing drugs, anti-spasms and antispasmodics, and good bacteria for restoring the intestinal microflora are commonly used to treat prostatitis. In the case of chronic inflammation of the prostate, additional therapy is sometimes required, in which case physiotherapy procedures are applied. Treatment of prostatitis depends on the severity of the disease, and the effectiveness of the treatment depends not only on the strength of the drug but also on the patient’s willingness and ability to change lifestyle, diet, harmful habits, work, and rest regimen.

prostatitis treatment

When contacting a doctor about prostatitis?

Prostatitis starts quite acutely, so if you experience even the slightest symptoms, it is worth consulting a urologist. Each of them may be associated with the onset of a serious illness. Also, if any of your relatives had prostate cancer at the age of 45, it is necessary to be checked regularly. And even if you have not had this disease in your family, it is recommended to get a preventive checkup at least once a year from the age of 50.
Take care of your prostate health! After all, not only your physical but also your psychological well-being depends on its activities.


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